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Name: Ms. Mesler
Email Address: amesler@portville.wnyric.org
Phone number: 933-6000


7th Grade Vocab. Words

Unit one vocab.

commission: to pay someone to create or to do something; a percentage of the total sale a salesperson receives

viewpoint: a particular way of thinking about something

cell: the smallest unit of living matter that is able to operate independently in a body; a small room, such as in a prison

assumption: to suppose that a fact or statement is true without checking the information

membrane: a thin, soft, flexible layer that covers and protects something, such as a cell

final: complete and cannot be undone; the last game in a series or the last test in a class

considerable: large in number, degree, or extent

foliage: all the leaves on a plant

distinction: a difference between two things or a feature that sets something or someone apart from others

dimension: the magnitude or extent of something; a measurement in one directions, such as length or width

Unit two vocab.

sequence: a connected or continuous series in a partciular order; to arrange things in order

component: an essential part or ingredient of something

structure: what is created from an arrangement or organization of parts; to build or construct something

fundamental: to serve as the basic element or foundation of something

multicellular: having many cells

chance: unexpected; an opportunity to do something

molecule: the smallest particle of a substance

transfer: to move or shift from one place, person, or situation to another; an act or process of moving materials or people from one place or situation to another

merge: to combine or blend together

prevail: to succeed or triumph after working hard

Unit 3 vocab.

presumably: supposing something is true without proof

previous: something that took place before the present time

predominantly: alike for the most part, but having some differences

substitute: a person or thing that takes the place of another; use something else

flourish: thriving and growing well; doing something with a bold and showy gesture or a burst of activity

experiment: a test or a trial to discover something or verify an idea; to try something to see what result you get

sample: a single item or representative part of a larger group; to take a small piece to try it out

method: a way of doing something or a procedure that is followed to achieve a goal

isolate: to set something apart and away from others

preserve: to protect something or keep it safe from injury or destruction; a restricted area set aside to protect animals and plants

Unit 4

genuine: real; honest and sincere

earnest: coming from a serious state of mind

modify: to change something a little or limit it in some way

diminished: lessened

focus: to concentrate on something; the center of activity, interest, or attention

amendment: an official change made to an important document or law

constitution: a statement of the basic laws and principles of a nation; your general health

protest: to object to something or complain about it

controversial: causing disagreement or argument

conflict: a struggle or disagreement; not in agreement

Unit 5

illustrate: to explain something by giving examples; creating pictures

gain: to get something or win it; an increase, improvement, or benefit

manipulate: to do what you can to get your way; to move something with your hands in a skillful way

consumers: people who buy and use things; living things that eat

purchase: to buy something; something that you buy

immune: not affected by something or free from it; protected from a disease

generalization: a broad statement

manual: a booklet that gives instructions and information; worked or done by hand

lend: to give something temporarily

manuscript: a typed or written text

Unit 6 vocab.

commitment: an agreement or promise

dynamic: something that has a lot of force and energy; a strong and energetic force that often causes change

vocal: having to do with using the human voice to speak, sing, or produce sounds; the part that is sung in music

confirm: when you have a feeling or belief that gets stronger; to make sure that something is true or definite

violate: to show no respect for someone's rights; to disobey a law

slander: to talk against someone and harm them; a false statement that harms someone's reputation

register: to recognize and idea or thought or understand it; a record of important information

valid: something that is true, acceptable, or legal

elect: to choose by voting; to choose to do something

pitfall: a danger or difficulty that you don't expect

Unit 7 vocab.

coordinate: to make sure that all the parts work together smoothly; a point on a map or grid

precision: when something works exactly as it is supposed to

positions: to carefully put something in the right place; how you feel about a subject

opposing: to disagree about something or to be in competition with another

contract: to pull something inward to make it smaller; an agreement that can be enforced by law

extend: to stretch something out to make it longer

pressure: the force that is produced when you press hard on something; the feeling that people expect a lot from you or that you must get a lot accomplished quickly

balance: to place an object so that it remains steady and does not fall to one side or the other

plane: a flat surface

maneuver: a difficult or clever action that is done to change a situation to your advantage; to move somthing skillfully into or out of an awkward location

Unit 8 vocab.

external: the outisde part or what can be seen on the surface

prevention: keeping something from happening

organs: the structures made of cells and tissues in a living thing that perform specific purposes; keyboard instruments that produce music by releasing air through pipes

radiation: waves of light or heat energy

shield: to protect something, sometimes with an object or cover; anything that protects

reflection: light that bounces off an object; when you think carefully and deeply about something

constrict: when you pull in, squeeze, or tighten something

distort: to twist something out of shape or change the meaning of what someone said

exposure: when you are not protected from the wind, rain, or sun; occurs when a secret or something that was hidden is revealed

millennia: more than one period of a thousand years

Unit 9 vocab.

evaluate: to judge something to determine its worth, condition, or significance

function: when something is performing or operating normally; the purpose of something

technique: a partciular way of doing something

react: when you respond to something, either with feelings, actions, or words

thrust: to push or drive something forward with force; the main point of an argument or criticism

collapse: when something falls apart, loses its falue, or stops working; something that loses energy, health, position, or structure

tissue: related cells that are alike and work together; a thin mesh of fabric or paper that can be absorbent

mechanisim: a machine or all the parts of a device that work together

consist: what items are made of, composed of, or formed from

obvious: something that can be easily noticed or understood

Unit 10 vocab.

minor: someone who is under age 18, not yet an adult; something that is not considered important or serious

apprentice: someone who learns a trade or skill through experience

expert: someone who has mastered a particular subject or has special skill or knowledge; an opinion that comes from someone who has special skill in or knowledge of the subject

offspring: the children of humans or animals

gender: male or female

novice: someone who is beginning to learn a skill or trade

labor: the work performed to make goods or provide services; to work very hard and make a great effort to do something

scenario: a seqence of events, especially an account of what could or might happen in the future

accompany: to go somewhere with someone

commune: to relate to someone or something in a very personal way; a community of people who live together and share the common ownership and use of property

Unit 11 vocab.

hierarchy: the classification of people according to their social, professional, or economic standing

peasant: a small landowner or laborere who worked the land to grow crops

hovel: a small house or hut that is usually dirty and run-down

makeshift: something that is roughly built and intended to last for only a short time

tax: a fee that is collected by an authority, such as the government, and used for a public purpose; to make demands on your strength

tenant: a person who rents a house or apartment from the person who owns it

medium: the middle; the material or means that an artist uses to create art

intermediate: a position that is in the middle, between two extremes

pursuit: when you are chasing or trying to get something; an activity or occupation

medieval: something that is from the Middle Ages;anything that is old-fashioned or unenlightened

Unit 12 vocab.

monarchy: a nation or state in which the government is headed by a king, queen, or other ruler who has inherited the position

estate: all the money, property, and other valuable items that a person leaves when he or she dies

chivalry: a code of conduct for knights in the Middle Ages characterized by gracious and courteous conduct

flaunt: to show off posessions or abilities or to try to impress others with them

succulent: tasting delicious or having a moist and pleasing texture; a plant with fleshy tissues that store moisture

squire: a young nobleman who tended to a knight's needs during the Middle Ages; to escort people and attend to their needs

court: the place where a king or other ruler resides with his family, advisers, and servants; to seek someone's attention and favor

allegiance: loyalty and devotion to a person, group, country, or cause

rationalize: to create an excuse or an explanation for your feelings, desires, or actions to make them appear better than they are

stabilize: when situations stop changing and become more regular and constant

Unit 13 vocab.

emerge: to come out of something

label: to describe something or name it with a word or picture; something used to identify or describe an object or picture

attribute: a characteristic assocated with a person or object that comes from nature or habit: to explain the reason that you succeeded or give credit for it

trait: a distinguishing quality someone has or a physical characteristic

generation: a group that was born and lives at the same time; the process of producing something

selection: a choice

denounce: to criticize something publicly and strongly

heredity: the passing down of genetic characteristics from ancestors to their descendants

expression: how you tell or relate your ideas and feelings to others

adaptation: an adjustment in behavior or attitude; a physical change that helps an animal survive in the changing environment

Unit 14 vocab.

instance: an example that illustrates or explains what you are talking about

contribute: to give your time, effort, or money to a cause

link: to connect things or people or bring them together: something that connects two things

outcome: the result or what happened

division: separating something into parts; having little in common and separate interests or opinions

gene: carries information in a person't body about one or more thraits the person gets from his or her parents

inherit: the information in your genes that determines how you look or act

critical: important and necessary for success: finding faults and flaws in another person

approximate: to make a guess that will come close to the number; very close or exact

utilize: to make use of something

Unit 15 vocab.

intriacte: something with many complex and interrelated parts

data: facts about a topic

noteworthy: something that is important enough to attract attention

interview: to talk to someone and ask questions in order to gather information; a meeting in which someone questions another to gather information or to decide on his or her qualifications for a job

determine: to make a decision or to come to a conclusion

marvel: filled with surprise, wonder, and amazement; somone or something that causes astonishment or wonder

predicment: a perplexing or difficult situation

remove: to move, shift, or take something away; to get rid of something completely

intervene: to change or hinder the outcome of an event

dictate: to speak to someone with authority and impose or give an order; a ruling principle or command

Unit 16 vocab.

triggered: something that is started or made to happen

congestion: clogged or overcrowded

import: to bring something into one country from another country; a situation or object that has importance

traditional: something that is connected to a group's culture, customs, or beliefs

initiative: when a person takes the first step to do something; people who have the determination and ability to do things on their own

dire: something that is very serious or terrible

famine: a shortage of food

contempt: scorn or lack of respect for someone or something

justify: to prove that an action is right or give reasons or excuses for doing it

latitude: having the freedom to choose what you do; a distance north or south of the equator

Unit 17 vocab.

notion: an impression or understanding of something; a small object that is useful

economy: based on the making, trading, and using goods and services; designed to save money

compensation: something of equal value given in return

notice: when you see something, observe it, or become aware of it; a sign or an announcement that gives information or a warning

denoting: when symbols, objects, or words stand for or mean some other concept

negotiate: to gargain and come to an agreement about a deal or a plan with others

outlandish: something odd, bizarre, or very unusual

notify: to tell others about something or make something known to them

credit: recognition given to someone for an accomplishment; to purchase an item now and pay for it later

export: to transfer an idea from one person or place to another; a product that is sold and sent to another country

Unit 18 vocab.

adolescence: the period in a person's life between childhood and adulthood

mature: a person who is fully grown; fully developed

guarantee: to make sure that something will happen or you promise that something is good; a written promise that a product will work

commodity: a product that is bought or sold

financial: having to do with managing and using money

income: the amount of money a person earns or receives in a certain period of time

currency: money; something that is generally accepted or widely used

summary: a brief retelling of something that is said or written; describing something done quickly

windfall: a gain that you didn't expect

frequent: something that happens often or repeatedly; to go somewhere often

Unit 19 vocab.

dismal: gloomy, bleak, dreary, and cheerless

indefinite: plans that are unclear or uncertain; a time period that has no certain end or deadline

summons: a notice stating that you must appear; calling forth or mustering bravery

contrary: something that is the opposite or something else

cunning: tricky, sly, or sneaky

revenue: the amount of income made from a property, investment, or any money-making source

possess: to own or hold something as property; to have a skill or quality

rebel: to disobey or resist; someone who fights, opposes, or revolts against authority

ignorance: a lack of knowledge or information

acknowledgment: a statement or gesture that indicates acceptance of a fact or an action

Unit 20 vocab.

defy: to resist or challenge authority or refuse to obey

valor: bravery and courage

reserve: to hold something back and save it for later; someone who shows restraint or caution in emotions or actions

eligible: qualified or capable of doing work

coverse: to exhange information or ideas with someone by talking to him or her; something that is the opposite or reverse of something else

limitation: anything that restricts or confines

maintenance: the act of keeping something in good shape; to provide support to enable someone to continue living in the same manner

sacrifice: the act of giving up something valuable to show loyalty or affection; to destroy or give up something in order to get or keep something else

obstinate: stubborn or unwilling to change your ways

obstacle: something that blocks or restrains movement or achievement

Unit 21 vocab.

alternate: someone or something who is a substitute for another; to go back and forth between two things

somewhat: applying partially or slightly

kindle: to inspire or excite someone interest or emotion; to start or begin a fire

complement: to go well with, complete, or perfect and object, idea, or person

interrogate: to question someone thoroughly to gain an explanation

logic: thinking or reasoning in a way that determines whether or not ideas make sense or if they are valid based on what you know

demand: asking with authority or insisting urgently; to ask with authority or forcefully order something

arrogant: to behave as if you are better than others

derogatory: something that criticizes someone or tries to belittle a person and detract from his or her good qualities

potential: something that can be developed or may become real; showing promise or possibility

8th grade vocab. words

Unit One Vocab.

Adage: a proverb, wise saying

Bonanza: a rich mass of ore in a mind; something very valuable, profitable, or rewarding; a very large amount

Churlish: lacking politeness or good manners: lacking sensitivity; difficult to work with or deal with; rude

Citadel: a fortress that overlooks and protects a city; any strong or commanding place

Collaborate: to work with, work together

Decree: an order having the force of law; to issue such an order; to command firmly or forcefully

Discordant: disagreeable tin sound, jarring; lacking in harmony, conflicting

Evolve: to develop gradually; to rise to a higher level

Excerpt: a passage taken from a book, article, etc.; to take such a passage; to quote

Grope: to feel about hesitantly with the hands; to search blindly or uncertainly

Hover: to float or hang suspended over; to move back and forth uncertainly over or around

Jostle: to bump, shove, brush against

Laggard: a person who moves slowly or falls behind; falling behind; slow to move, act, or respond

Plaudits: applause: enthusiastic praise or approval

Preclude: to make impossible, prevent, shut out

Revert: to return, go back

Rubble: broken stone or bricks; ruins

Servile: of or relating to a slave; behaving like a slave or servant; lacking spirit or independence

Vigil: a watch, especially at night; any period of watchful attention

Wrangle: to quarrel or argue in a noisy, angry way; to obtain by argument; such a quarrel or argument

Unit 2 Vocab.

Antics: ridiculous and unpredictable behavior or actions

Avowed: declared openly and without shame, acknowledged

Banter: to exchange playful remarks, tease; talk that is playful and teasing

Bountiful: giving freely, generous; plentiful

Congested: overcrowded, filled or occupied to excess

Detriment: harm or loss; a disadvantage; a cause of loss or damage

Durable: sturdy, not easily worn out or destroyed; lasting for a long time

Enterprising: energetic, willing and able to start something new; showing boldness and imagination

Frugal: economical, avoiding waste and luxury; scanty, poor

Gingerly: with extreme care or caution

Glut: to provide more than is needed or wanted; to feed or fill to the point of overstuffing; an oversupply

Incognito: in a disguised state, under an assumed name

Invalidate: to make valueless, take away all force or effect

Legendary: described in well-known stories: existing in old stories (legends) rather than in real life

Maim: to cripple, disable

Minimized: to make as small as possible, make the least of; to make smaller than before

Oblique: slanting or sloping; not straightforward or direct

Veer: to change directions or course, turn aside, shift

Venerate: to regard with reverence, look up to with great respect

Wanton: reckless; heartless, unjustifiable; loose in morals; a spoiled, pampered person; one with low morals

Unit 3 Vocab.

Allot: to assign or distribute into shares or portions

Amass: to bring together, collect, gather, especially for oneself

Audacious: bold, adventurous, recklessly daring

Comply: to yield to a request or command

Devoid: not having or using, lacking

Elite: the choice part of a group of people or things, superior

Grapple: an iron hook used to grab and hold; to come to grips with, wrestle with, fight with

Incapacitate: to deprive of strength or ability; to make legally ineligible

Instigate: to urge on; to stir up

Longevity: long life, long duration

Myriad: in very great numbers; a very great number

Perspective: a point of view or general standpoint from which different things are viewed, physically or mentally; the appearance to the eye of various objects at a give time, place, or distance

Perturb: to trouble, make uneasy; to disturb greatly; to throw into confusion

Prodigious: immense, extraordinary in bulk, size, or degree

Relevant: connected with or related to the matter at hand

Skittish: extremely nervous and easily frightened; shy or timid; extremely cautious

Tether: a rope or chain used to fasten something to a fixed object; the outer limit of strength or resources; to fasten with a rope or chain

Unison: a sounding together; agreement or accord

Vie: to compete; to strive for victory or superiority

Willful: stubbornly self-willed: done on purpose; deliberate

Unit 4 Vocab.

Annul: to reduce to nothing; to make ineffective

blase: indifferent, bored as a result of having enjoyed many pleasures

bolster: to support, give a boost to

deplore: to feel or express regret or disapproval

frivolous: of little importance; not meant seriously

muster: to bring together for service or battle; to gather or summon

nonentity: a person or thing of no importance

obsess; to trouble, haunt, or fill the mind

ornate: elaborately decorated

oust: to remove, drive out of a position or place

peruse: to read thoroughly and carefully

porous: full of tiny holes; able to be penetrated by air or water

promontory: a high point of land extending into water

prone: lying face down; inclined, likely

qualm: a pang of conscience, uneasiness, or misgiving; a feeling of faintness or nausea

recourse: a person or thing turned to for help or advice

residue: a remainder, that which remains when a part has been used up or removed

solicitous: showing concern or care

staid: serious and dignified; quiet or subdued in character or conduct

sustain: to support, nourish; to suffer, undergo

Unit 5 Vocab.

aghast: filled with amazement, disgust, fear, or terror

ample: more than enough, large, spacious

apparition: a ghost or ghostly figure: an unexplained appearance

assert: to declare or state as truth, maintain or defend

cower: to crouch or shrink away from in fear or shame

disdain: to look upon with scorn; a feeling of contempt

epitaph: a brief statement written on a tomb or gravestone

ethical: having to do with morals, values, right and wrong

facetious: humorous, not meant seriously

inaudible: not able to be heard

indiscriminate: without restraint or control; unselective

intrigue: crafty dealings, underhanded plotting; to form and carry out plots

jurisdiction: an area of authority or control

plausible: appearing true, reasonable, or fair

plebian: common, vulgar; belonging to the lower class

prodigal: wastefully extravagant; lavishly abundant

proximity: nearness or closeness

pulverize: to grind or pound to a powder or dust; to destroy

sequel: a result: a literary work or film continuing the story of one made earlier

volatile: highly changeable; tending to become violent or explosive

Unit 6 vocab.

abashed: embarrassed or ashamed

aloof: withdrawn, standing apart from others

anguish: great suffering, distress, or pain

articulate: to pronounce distinctly; to express well in words; able to use language effectively

bask: to expose oneself to pleasant warmth; to take pleasure or derive enjoyment from

defect: an imperfection or flaw of some kind; to desert a cause or organization

finesse: delicate skill; tact and cleverness

flaunt: to display in a conceited, offensive way

forthright: frank, direct, straightforward

genial: cordial, pleasantly cheerful or warm

instill: to add gradually

ostracize: to exclude from a group, banish, send away

premonition: a forewarning or foreboding of a future event

pseudonym: a pen name, name assumed by a writer

purge: to wash away impurities; the process of getting rid of someone decisively

rehabilitate: to restore to good condition or to a former position

repercussion: an effect or consequence of some action or event

resolute: bold, determined; firm

retentive: able to hold or keep; retaining knowledge easily

scapegoat: a person or thing carrying the blame for others

Unit 7 Vocab.

acme: the highest point

attribute: a quality or characteristic associated with someone

belittle: to make something appear smaller than it is

convey: to transport; to transmit; to communicate

doctrine: a belief, principle, or teaching

excise: to remove by cutting

exotic: foreign; charmingly unfamiliar or strikingly unusual

haggard: thin, pale, and careworn as a result of worry or suffering

jaunty: lively, easy, and carefree in manner

juncture: a joining together; the point at which two things are joined; any important point in time

menial: lowly, humble, lacking importance or dignity

parry: to ward off, evade, avoid

predatory: preying on, plundering, or piratical

ravage: to destroy, lay waste, ruin

stance: a way of holding the body; an attitude or position on an issue

tawdry: showy and flashy but lacking in good taste

turncoat: a person who switches to an opposing side or party

unassuming: not putting on airs, modest

wallow: to roll about in a lazy, clumsy, or helpless way; to overindulge in

waver: to move to and fro; to show lack of firmness and decision

Unit 8 Vocab.

abut: to join at one end, border on

attire: clothes, apparel

avail: to be of use or benefit to; to make use of

crony: a very close friend, pal, chum

cryptic: puzzling or mystifying

divergent: going in different directions; differing from each other

enmity: hatred, ill-will

fervent: very earnest, emotional, passionate

gaunt: thin and bony, starved-looking; bare

infiltrate: to pass through or gain entrance to gradually or stealthily

nullify: to make of no value or consequence, cancel, wipe out

perceptible: capable of being grasped by the senses or mind

plummet: to plunge straight down

proclaim: to declare publicly or officially

proxy: an agent, substitute

rankle: to cause anger, irritation, or bitterness

scavenger: a person who collects usable items from waste materials; an animal that feeds on refuse

stint: to limit, be sparing or frugal; a limit or restriction

stoical: self-controlled, not showing feeling in response to pleasure or pain

unflagging: tireless, continuing with vigor

Unit 9 Vocab.

apt: suitable, fitting, likely; quick to learn

awry: in a turned or twisted position or direction; wrong

bludgeon: a short club used as a weapon; to strike with a heavy club

capitulate: to end resistance, give up, surrender

chafe: to wear sore by rubbing; annoy

defile: to make unclean or dirty, destroy the purity of

dire: dreadful, causing fear or suffering

disarming: charming, tending to get rid of unfriendliness or suspicion

disgruntled: in bad humor, discontented, annoyed

encroach: to advance beyond the usual or proper limits, trespass

endow: to furnish, equip, provide with funds or some other desirable thing

fend: to ward off, resist; to get along, manage

impunity: freedom from punishment

mien: air, manner, appearance; expression

penal: having to do with punishment

pertinent: related to the matter at hand, to the point

predominant: the greatest in strength or power; most common

prodigy: something wonderful or marvelous; a young person with extraordinary talent

recluse: a person who leads a life shut up or withdrawn from the world

renown: fame, glory

Unit 10 Vocab.

accord: agreement, harmony; to agree, be in harmony; to grant

barter: to exchange in trade; to exchange goods

curt: short, rudely brief

devise: to think out, plan, figure out, invent, create

dexterous: skillful in the use of hands or body

engross: to occupy the complete attention, absorb fully

entail: to put a burden on, impose, require, involve

ferret: a kind of weasel; to search or hunt out

habituate: to become used to; to cause to become used to

impending: about to happen, hanging over (in a menacing way)

personable: pleasing in appearance or personality, attractive

rue: to regret, be sorry for

scoff: to make fun of; to show contempt for

transition: a change from one state, condition, or place to another

trepidation: fear, fright, trembling

upbraid: to blame, scold, find fault with

veritable: actual, true, real

vex: to annoy, anger, exasperate; to confuse, puzzle

vitality: strength, energy, liveliness

whimsical: subject to odd ideas or notions, playful; unpredictable

Unit 11 Vocab.

appease: to make clam, soothe; to relieve, satisfy

belated: late, tardy

calamitous: causing great misfortune

cite: to quote, refer to, mention; to summon to appear in court

conventional: in line with accepted ideas or standards; trite

decoy: to lure into a trap; a person or thing used to lure into a trap

delve: to dig, search deeply and thoroughly in

ensue: to follow in order, come immediately after and as a result

gallantry: heroic courage; respect and courtesy

impart: to make known, tell; to give, pass something on

judicious: using or showing good judgment, wise, sensible

mediate: to bring about an agreement between persons or groups, act as a go-between

milieu: the setting, surroundings, environment

outlandish: strange, freakish, odd

overbearing: domineering, haughty, bullying; overpowering, predominant

pert: high-spirited; lively; bold, saucy; jaunty

quirk: a peculiar way of acting; a sudden twist or turn

regale: to feast, entertain agreeably

shiftless: lazy, lacking in ambition and energy; inefficient

taint: a stain or spot; a mark of corruption or dishonor; to stain or contaminate

Unit 12 Vocab.

abdicate: to resign, formally give up an office or duty

bestow: to give as a gift

capacious: able to hold much, roomy

caustic: able to burn or eat away by chemical action; biting, sarcastic

crusade: a strong movement to advance a cause or idea; to campaign, work vigorously

deface: to injure or destroy the surface or appearance of; to damage the value, influence, or effect of

embargo: an order forbidding the trade in or movement of commercial goods; to forbid to enter or leave port; to forbid trade with

fallacy: a false notion or belief; an error in thinking or reasoning

levity: a lack of seriousness or earnestness

mendicant: a beggar

nauseate: to make sick to the stomach; to fill with extreme disgust

negate: to nullify, deny, bring to nothing

pivotal: vitally important, essential

recipient: one who receives; receiving; able or willing to receive

ruse: an action designed to confuse or mislead, a trick

teem: to become filled to overflowing; to be present in large quantities

tenet: an opinion, belief, or principle held to be true

tractable: easily managed, easy to deal with

ungainly: clumsy, awkward; unwieldy

voracious: having a huge appetite, greedy, ravenous; excessively eager

Unit 13 Vocab.

adapt: to adjust or change to suit conditions

attest: to bear witness, affirm to be true or genuine

dovetail: to fit together exactly; to connect so as to form a whole

enormity: the quality of exceeding all moral bounds; an exceedingly evil act

falter: to hesitate, stumble, lose courage; to speak hesitatingly

foreboding: a warning or feeling that something bad will happen

forlorn: totally abandoned and helpless; sad and lonely

haughty: chillingly proud and scornful

impediment: a physical defect; a hindrance, obstacle

imperative: necessary, urgent

loiter: to linger in an aimless way, hang around

malinger: to pretend illness to avoid duty or work

pithy: short but full of meaning and point

plunder: to rob by force, especially during wartime; to seize wrongfully; property stolen by force

simper: to smile or speak in a silly, forced way; a silly, forced smile

steadfast: firmly fixed; constant, not moving or changing

vaunted: much boasted about in a vain or swaggering way

vilify: to abuse or belittle unjustly or maliciously

waif: a person without a home or friend; a stray person or animal

wry: twisted, turned to one side; cleverly and often grimly humorous

Unit 14 Vocab.

amplify: to make stronger, larger, greater, louder

armistice: a temporary peace, halt in fighting

arrogant: haughty, too convinced of one's own importance

bland: gentle, soothing, mild; lacking interest or taste

disclaim: to deny interest in or connection with; to give up all claim to

epoch: a distinct period of time, era, age

estrange: to drift apart or become unfriendly; to cause such a separation

gratify: to please, satisfy; to indulge or humor

infinite: exceedingly great, inexhaustible, without limit, endless

irascible: easily made angry, hot-tempered

kindred: a person's relatives; related by blood; like, similar

naive: innocent, unsophisticated, showing lack of wordly knowledge and experience

niche: a decorative recess in a wall; a suitable place or position for a person or thing

obliterate: to blot out completely, destroy utterly

ramshackle: appearing ready to collapse, loose and shaky

ransack: to search or examine thoroughly; to rob

rote: unthinking routine, a mechanical way of doing something

solvent: able to meet one's financial obligations; having the power to dissolve other substances

tedious: long and tiresome

vendor: a person who sells something

Unit 15 Vocab.

abyss: a deep or bottomless pit

befall: to happen, occur; to happen to

crucial: of supreme importance, decisive, critical

dregs: the last remaining part; the part of least worth

embody: to give form to; to incorporate, include; to personify

exasperate: to irritate, annoy, or anger

fiasco: the complete collapse or failure of a project

garnish: to adorn or decorate, especially food

heritage: an inheritance; a birthright

inert: lifeless, unable to move or act; slow

mercenary: acting or working for self-gain only; a hired soldier

negligent: marked by carelessness or indifference; failing to do what should be done

oblivion: forgetfulness, disregard; a state of being forgotten

opus: an impressive piece of work

pallid: pale, lacking color; weak and lifeless

parable: a short narrative designed to teach a moral lesson

rational: based on reasoning; sensible, reasonable

reciprocal: shared; involving give-and-take between two persons or things; working in both directions

stricture: a limitation or restriction; a criticism; a narrowing of a passage in the body

veneer: a thin outer layer; the surface appearance or decoration


Quick Writes

QW 1.1.1 How does the structure of Marlowe's poem develop a central theme of the text?

QW 1.1.2 How does the language of Marlowe's poem evoke a sense of time and place? How does this time and place develop a central idea of the text?

QW 1.1.3 How does Raleigh develop a central idea of his poem?

QW 1.1.4 How does Raleigh draw upon or transform Marlowe's poem?

QW 1.1.5 Which of Raleigh's central ideas does Williams focus on and how does Williams develop this idea?

QW 1.1.7 How does Williams draw upon and transform the central ideas established by Marlowe and Raleigh?

QW 1.2.1 How does the character of Ender Wiggins develop in this passage?

QW 1.2.2 How does the character of Ender Wiggins further develop in this passage?

QW 1.2.3 How do Ender's actions in this passage reveal an emerging central idea of this text?

QW 1.2.4 How do Ender's actions in this passage reveal a central idea of the text?

QW 1.2.5 How does the author's descriptive word choice further develop the characters of Sedgewick and Hundert?

QW 1.2.6 how does the character of Hundert further develop in this passage?

QW 1.2.8 How do Hundert's reflections develop a central idea of the text?

QW 1.2.9 Determine a central idea from Hundert's reunion with his former students. How does this idea emerge and develop over the course of the text?

QW 1.2.10 How do details in the passage develop your understanding of Hundert's conflicting motivations? Use evidence from the text (including details from the first "Mr. Julius Caesar" competition) to support your answer.

QW 1.2.11 How does the competition and its aftermath further develop a central idea in the text?

QW 1.2.12 How does the interaction between Hundert and Deepak develop your understanding of the relationship between Hundert and Bell?

QW 1.3.1 How does the interaction between Waverly and her mother in this passage reveal a central idea of the text?

QW 1.3.2 How does your understanding of Waverly develop over the course of the passage?

QW 1.3.4 How does Waverly's character develop through confrontation and competition? Draw upon evidence from throughout the chapter to support your understanding.

QW 1.3.5 How do Jing-mei's interactions with her mother develop over the course of this passage? What is she hoping will happen?

QW 1.3.8 How does Tan develop and refine a central idea in "Two Kinds"?

QW 1.3.9 What is the imapct of Tan's choice to insert Waverly into "Two Kinds"?

QW 1.3.10 How does Mike's relationship with his father develop a central idea of the text?

QW 1.3.12 What connection does Bissinger develop between Don and Charlie's relationship and Permian football?

QW 2.1.2 How does King develop his reasons for being in Birmingham in paragraphs 3-5? How do these ideas connect to the first two paragraphs of the letter?

QW 2.1.3 How do paragraphs 7-9 develop a claim King makes in paragraph 6?

QW 2.1.4 How does King use rhetoric in paragraph 9 to advance his purpose?

QW 2.1.5 Delineate the argument and specific claims in paragraphs 10-11. Assess whether King's evidence is relevant and sufficient.

QW 2.1.6 Analyze the cumulative impact of word choices, including figurative language and connotation, on the development of a central idea present in both "In This Blind Alley" and "Letter from Birmingham Jail."

QW 2.1.7 Delineate King's argument in paragraphs 12-15. Assess the validity of his reasoning.

QW 2.1.8 Determine King's purpose in paragraphs 16-18 and ahalyze how he uses rhetoric to advance that purpose.

QW 2.1.9 How does King's new claim in paragraphs 19-21 refine his central claim in paragraphs 1-18?

QW 2.1.11 How does King's use of rhetoric advance his purpose in paragraphs 22-23?

QW 2.1.12 How does King use paragraphs 24-25 to refine his claim in paragraphs 22-23?

QW 2.1.14 How does King unfold his analysis of the church in paragraphs 26-33? Provide three or more examples from the text to support your response.

QW 2.1.15 How does King use paragraphs 26-33 to develop and refine an idea from earlier in the text?

QW 2.1.16 How do King's use of rhetoric and placement of this paragraph advance his purpose?

QW 2.1.17 How does King's use of rhetoric in the final five paragraphs advance the purpose of the letter as a whole?

QW 2.1.18 How does the conclusion of the letter refine an idea developed throughout the letter?

QW 2.3.1 How do the Articles develop and refine the ideas expressed in the Preamble?

QW 2.3.4 How does Roosevelt use rhetoric in paragraphs 10-16 to advance the purpose of her speech?

QW 2.3.5 How does Yousafzai use rhetoric in paragraphs 1-6 to advance her purpose?

QW 2.3.6 Select a passage from paragraphs 10-20. How does this passage develop and refine a claim from the text as a whole?

QW 3.1.1 How does Skloot unfold events in this excerpt (pages 1-4) and what connections does she draw among these events?

QW 3.1.3 How does the cumulative impact of specific word choices and phrases advance Skloot's pupose in this excerpt (chapter 13)?

QW 3.1.5 Analyze how Skloot uses examples in this portion of the text (chapter 17) to advance her purpose.

QW 3.1.7 What is the impact of the order in which Skloot unfolds events and ideas in chapter 21?

QW 3.1.8 How does Skloot use specific details in this section (pages 179-183) to further develop and refine a central idea in the text?

QW 3.1.9 How does the section on page 197 from "On March 25, 1976, when Mike Rogers's Rolling Stonearticle" to "of Henrietta's DNA that scientists could use to help identify HeLa cells in culture" develop and refin Skloot's ideas in the excerpt from pages 194-198?

QW 3.1.10 How does Skloot use this portion of text (pages 199-201) to further refine a central idea?

QW 3.1.11 How does the new information presented in this excerpt (p.201-206) impact your understanding of tissue ownership?

QW 3.1.12 What "miracle" happens in this portion of text, and what effect does it have on the idea that "what them doctors did was wrong" (pp.245-246)?

QW 4.2.1 How do the interactions in Act 1.1 and 1.2 develop Macbeth's character?

QW 4.2.2 Analyze how a central idea emerges in Act 1.3.

QW 4.2.3 Analyze how Shakespeare develops Lady Macbeth over the course of this scene.

QW 4.2.4 Analyze how Lady Macbeth and Macbeth's relationship develops over the course of these scenes.

QW 4.2.5 Analyze the impact of Shakespeare's use of figurative language on the mood of this scene.

QW 4.2.6 Analyze the effect of Shakespeare's structural choices in this scene.

QW 4.2.7 Donalbain states: "There's daggers in men's smiles." How does Shakespeare develop this idea in Act 2.3?

QW 4.2.9 How do key details in this scene further develop a central idea?

QW 4.2.10 Analyze how Lady Macbeth and Macbeth's interaction in this scene advances the plot.

QW 4.2.11 How do the interactions between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth further develop the central idea?

QW 4.2.12 How do the Witches' interactions with Macbeth advance the plot?

QW 4.2.13 How does Shakespeare use specific details to develop a central idea in this scene?

QW 4.2.14 How does Shakespeare further develop Macbeth through the interaction between Malcolm and Macduff?

QW 4.2.15 Analyze the effect of Shakespeare's structural choice in revealing to the audience and to Macduff that his family has been murdered.

QW 4.2.16 Analyze how Shakespeare refines a central idea through his development of the character of Lady Macbeth in this scene.

QW 4.2.17 How do the character interactions in these scenes further develop the character of Macbeth?

QW 4.2.18 How does Shakespeare's use of figurative langauge further develop the character of Macbeth in these scenes?

QW 4.2.19 How does Shakespeare unfold and develop an element of tragedy in Act 5.7 and 5.8?

QW 4.2.21 Which character bears the most responsibility for the tragedy of Macbeth? Use reasoning to support the claim and provide one piece of evidence to support your choice and strengthen your reasoning.